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South China Overview

South China is made up of Hunan , Jiangxi , Guangdong , Guangxi,Hainan, Hongkong, and Macau Hunan Province :
Situated in the south of the middle reaches of the Yangtze River, Hunan means South of the Lake, indicating the province is located south of the Dongting Lake , the second largest freshwater lake in China . Because of the Xiang River , which flows across the province from south to north, Hunan is also called 'Xiang' in short. Hunan has a long history, its landscape is magnificent, and it is home to numerous men of great renown. Changsha and Yueyang are national famous historical and cultural cities. There are also 25 national and provincial scenic resorts, 22 nature reserves at or above the provincial level, and large numbers of places of cultural interest. Hunan is the home province of Mao Zedong , founder of the People's Republic, and numerous other outstanding historical figures. Hunan abounds in mountain delicacies, melons and fruits and arts and crafts. The Xiang embroidery is one of the four major schools of Chinese embroidery. The chrysanthemum stone carvings are much sought after objects for art collectors and tourists alike from all over the world.
Jiangxi Province :
Jiangxi Province lies on the southern bank of the Yangtze River 's lower and middle sections. It has an area of 166,900 sq km and a population of 39.66 million. Nanchangis the provincial capital. Jiangxi is high in the south and low in the north.It is borderedby hills and mountains, the land generally sloping towards the Poyang Lake in the north. Hills and mountains account for 60%  of the province's landmass. The mountainsare not high and have many natural passages facilitating its link to other provinces.
The Mufu, Jiuling, Wugong and Wanyang mountains lie in the west; the Dayuling and
Jiulian mountains in the south; the Huaiyu and Wuyi mountains in the east; and Lushan Mountain in the north. There are many red-soil hills and basins in the central-south. The Jian Basin in the south is a major farming area. The Poyang Lake Plain in the north is part of the Middle-Lower Yangtze River Plain. With numerous rivers and streams, fertile soil and a dense population, it is known as a "granary south of the Yangtze River ".
Jiangxi abounds in tourism resources. Nanchang , Jingdezhen , Jiujiang and Ganzhou are important sites of historic and cultural interest. The Lushan Mountain in northern Jiangxi is noted for its scenic beauty and as a summer resort. Every year, tourists in tens of thousands flock to the Jinggang mountains in southern Jiangxi , the first base area of the Communist-led revolution and also a scenic site. Sanqing and Longhu mountains in the northeast of the province are considered holy places of Taoism, an indigenous Chinese religion. The Poyang Lake, China's largest fresh water lake, offers asight seldom seen elsewhere when cranes, during  their southward migration, arrive in thousands in winter for food and shelters in lakeside reed marshes. All in all, Jiangxi has 450 tourism attractions.
Guangdong
Province :
Guangdong is the shorted form of Guangnan Donglu, an ancient province. It is located in south China , with Guangzhou as its capital city. Thousands of years ago, the Yue people resided here. That is why Guangdong is also called Yue. In the 8th year (887BC) during the reign of King Yi of the Zhou Dynasty (11th century -- 256BC), the capital of the Chu State was in Guangzhou . After the First Emperor of the Qin Dynasty (221-206BC) unified the whole China , Nanhai Prefecture was founded in Guangdong . In the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911), Guangdong Province was established, and this name has been in use ever since.
It adjoins Wuling Mountains to the north and the South China Sea to the south, with a landscape sloping from north to south. It's mountainous in north, and in the south there are coastal plains, hills and tablelands. The deltas of the Pearl River and Han River are its chief plains. The West River , the North River and the East River, known as "the Peal River System", as well as Han River are Guangdong 's main waterways. Its coastal line is long and zigzag with numerous offshore islands.
Its main industrial products cover cane sugar, garments, leather, paper, stationery, arts and crafts, pharmaceuticals, plastics, pottery, electric machinery, electronics, and communication equipment, the output value of which all stands in the forefront in China . Guangdong also holds an important place in China in the production of rice, silk, tea, jute and tropical crops. It has well-developed sea and ocean fishing as well as freshwater and seawater aquiculture.
The capital city of Guangzhou is the largest city in South China and the political, economic, cultural, transportation and travel center of the province. Shenzhen, Zhuhai and Shantou of Guangdong Province have been listed as special economic zones.
As one of the locations of China 's Special Economic Zones, and bordering Hong Kong and Macao , Guangdong has marked advantages in utilizing overseas capital and technology and carrying out foreign economic and technical cooperation. It is also one of the home provinces of oversea Chinese.
Guangdong
boasts abundant natural and historical sites and sceneries, including Yuexiu Hill in Guangzhou , botanical garden of South China , Xiqiao Mountain , Conghua Hot Springs, the Window of the World, the Yuexiu Park , the Seven Star Crags, and Dinghu Mountain . Guangzhou and Chaozhou are the renowned historical and cultural cities and Foshan is one of the Four Great Towns nationwide.
Guanxi Zhuangzu Autonomous Region
Guangxi is shortened for Guangnan Xilu, an ancient province. The Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, Gui for short, is named after its history as the prefecture of Guilin County in the Qin Dynasty (221-206BC). Guangxi boasts a vast land of forest. Good climate and geographical location enables Guangxi to have as many as over 8,000 tree species, including precious ones like Cathay silver fir. Guangxi abounds in minerals, crops and waterpower, rice, sugar cane, peanut, grapefruit, lichee, longan, pear and banana, etc. It is also rich in wild animal resources, with about 38 breeds of rare ones under the state protection.Guangxi is a place renowned for its picturesque scenery. For the visitor, the great appeal of Guangxi is its karst limestone topography that creates the stunning scenery of jagged green mountains beside clear blue waters. The places of interest here are the Lijiang River, the Reed Flute Cave, the Seven Star Park, the Folded Brocade Hill (Diecai Shan), the Wind and Rain Bridge and the Mapang Drum Tower of the Dong ethnic minority, etc. There are also lots of other historical relics such as the Site of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom . Guilin and Yangshuo are exceptionally beautiful areas in China
Hainan Province
Hainan Province , the second biggest island, only trailing Taiwan , lies at the southernmost part of China , connecting Guangdong Province with the Qiongzhou Straits. Its western neighbour is the Beibu Gulf and it faces Viet Nam ; on its eastern side it borders the South China Sea and faces Taiwan ; its southeastern and southern sides face the Philippines , and Malaysia . The province is home to 37 ethnic groups including the Han, Li, Miao and Hui, and the people of Hainan speak the dialects of Hainan, Danzhou, Lin’gao, Cunhua, Maihua, Junhua, Yahua with the minority people speaking the dialects of Li, Miao and Hui. The Hainan dialect is the most popular one in the province.
The province has the smallest land area but the biggest ocean area of any province in China . Its total land area is 34,000 square kilometers while its ocean area adds up to some 2 million square kilometers. The distance from the northeast end to the southwest end of the island is about 290 kilometers and the distance from the northwest end to the southeast end being about 180 kilometers. The archipelagoes of Xisha and Zhongsha are about 300 kilometers to the southeast of Hainan Island ; the Nansha Archipwlago is in the south of the South China Sea . The islands in the South China Sea are a necessary route between the Pacific Ocean and the Indian Ocean , an advantageous position in international oceangoing transportation.
The province is high in the middle and comparatively flat around the edges of the island. Its coastline is 1,528 kilometers long with numerous harbours andsandy beaches. The coastline ecology contains a tropical mangrove belt and coral reefs. Sea level of the archipelagos stands at 4-5 meters on average. The stone island, 14 meters above sea level, is the highest in the Xisha Archipelago.
Mountains surpassing 1,500 meters include the Wuzhi Mountain
五指山, the mountain ranges of Yingge, Erzong, Houmi, Yajiada and Diaolu. Located in the middle of the island, the Wuzhi Mountain has a main peak of 1,867.1 meters high and is the highest peak on Hainan Island . The province has 154 rivers folwing into the sea, the top three of which are the Nandu River , the Changhua River and the Wanquan River .
The climate in Hainan is of the tropical monsoon and tropical ocean type. It is hot and warm all the yrar round with plenty of rainfall. Tropical storms and typhoons frequent the island in autumn. Located in the tropical and equatorial belt, Hainan has abundant sunshine, warmth and water. Thirty thousand species of living organism have been detected in the province, accounting for 10 per cent of China ’s total. The 3.44 million gectares of arable land make up 42.5 percent of China ’s tropical arable land. And the arable land of the province is suitable for agriculture, rubber plants, tropical crops, forestry, animal husbandry and other purposes.
Hainan administers three cities, nine counties, and seven autonomous counties as well as the islands and reefs of the Xisha, Nansha and Zhongsha islands and the territorial waters around them.
In 1988, Hainan was designated a province and the Hainan Special Economic Zone (SEZ), the largest SEZ in China , was established there. In 1999, more than 200 key tourism projects have been completed, signaling that the island’s tourism industry has rapidly developed.
The island is served by two international airports and more than 140 civil airlines, including charter lines from Japan , the Republic of Korea , Thailand , and Malaysia . It has opened shipping routes to more than 20 countries. In addition, the expressway surrounding the island opened to traffic in late 1999.
Tourists can gorge themselves on cuisine of China , Japan , the Republic of Korea , Southeast Asia, and the United States on the island. The development of tourism is playing a significant role in the development of rural and urban construction, transportation, trade and communications on the island. Tourism has become a pillar industry in Hainan, a tropical island in South China . The island’s tropical environment has created conditions favourable for the development of related industries in the province.
Hongkong Special District
Hong Kong is a place with multiple personalities, as a result of being Cantonese Chinese with a long-time British influence. Today, the former colony is a major tourism destination for China ’s increasingly affluent population. It is also an important hub in the Chinese Diaspora with global connections to many of the world’s cities. It is a unique destination that has absorbed people and cultural influences from places as diverse as Vietnam and Vancouver .
The Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People’s Republic of China is much more than a harbour city. The traveller weary of its crowded streets may be tempted to describe it as “Hong Kongcrete”. Yet, this SAR with its cloudy mountains and rocky islands is mostly a rural landscape. Much of the countryside is classified as Country Park and, although 7 million people are never far away, it is possible to find pockets of wilderness that will reward the more intrepid tourist.
Hong Kong
has a subtropical climate with at least one season to match your comfort zone. Boasting one of the world’s best airports, it is the ideal stopover for those who wish to travel deeper into the Orient.
Macau Special District
The name " Macau " is derived from the name of a Chinese goddess, popular with seafarers and fishermen, known as A-Ma or Ling Ma.
According to legend, a junk sailing across the South China Sea one clear day found itself in a sudden storm. Everybody on board was about to give up all hope of surviving this natural calamity, when an attractive young woman, who had boarded the ship at the very last minute, stood up and ordered the elements to calm down. Miraculously, the gale winds stopped blowing and the sea became calm. Without further incident, the junk arrived safely at the port of Hoi Keang .
The young woman stepped ashore and walked to the crest of the nearby Barra Hill where, in a glowing halo of light and perfume, she ascended into heaven. On the particular spot where she set foot on land, a temple was built in homage to her.
In the 16th century, when Portuguese sailors landed and asked the name of the place, the natives replied A-Ma-Gao (Bay of A-Ma). So the peninsula was renamed. In modern usage, Amagao was shortened to Macau .
However, Macau has always displayed an atmosphere which made it different from the surrounding areas. Today it is still this mixture of the Chinese and Portuguese cultures harmoniously maintained and developed by its people that makes this place a specific cultural entity.
Macau
is a Special Administrative Region of the People? Republic of China since 20 December 1999 and will maintain its social and economical characteristics in accordance to the principle of ?ne country, two systems?
Macau of tiny dimensions possesses the highest population rate in the world but the per capita income is one of the highest in Asia . There is a cosmopolitan atmosphere, tolerant in practices and living experiences, where, as always, Asia meets Europe and where the Mediterranean cultures live side by side with the Chinese one.